United States Patent
The Hollow Earth Theory
By: Mark Harp
(allegato ad una pagina di www.nemesi.net)
Word from Jeroen Wierda:
|This very interesting article by Mark Hap is about "The Hollow Earth Theory". A thought provoking idea that is based upon the fundamental idea that earth is in fact HOLLOW. The idea is further that each of the two poles have enormous openings, so that in theory you could look through earth! Inside this hollow earth is said to be a glowing sphere that is held together by gravitational forces. I will not tell any more, please read it...|
United States Patent
On November 25, 1912 Marshall B. Gardner of Aurora, Kane County, Illinois, USA, submitted his discovery application to the United States Patent Office. 18 months later, on May 12,1914, this federal agency granted Mr. Gardner United States patent 1096102, the second most important scientific document ever issued. Its scientific significance is exceeded only by the mechanical flight discovery of Orville and Wilbur Wright in 1903. For reasons which even Mr. Gardner could not have fully anticipated in the early 1900s, and which are now abundantly clear, his discovery soon became the most highly classified military secret of all time. In 1913 Gardner wrote his original book proving beyond any doubt that our Earth is a hollow sphere. So voluminous was the evidence which he continued to amass from studies of astronomy and Polar exploration, that he expanded his book to 450 pages in 1920.
Although he seems not to have been aware of it, Gardner's work had incompletely been preceded by William Reed, whose book PHANTOM OF THE POLES was 281 pages and was published in 1906 New York City by the Walter S. Rockey Company. The one shortcoming with Mr. Reed's theory, otherwise very intelligently developed, was that he had failed to finish his centrifugal force reasoning regarding Earth's formation As a result, he was never able to logically account for the powerful source of heat and illumination present in the Earth's Interior. Gardner, on the other hand, did account for this source. The difference is that whereas Reed confined his research strictly to Polar exploration, Gardner augmented this with studies of astronomy. The majority of this article will be testimony from the real experts, the people who were there at the huge telescopes and especially there in those vast and previously mysterious Polar regions. But first, this is the common sense theory responsible for United States patent 1096102.
In the beginning, some 4 or 5 billion years ago, when the Earth was still an enormously expanded ball of superhot whirling gas, it gradually began to contract as it cooled. The laws of physics require cooling gases to condense and so the rapidly spinning sphere of tenuous gases began to concentrate as the heat loss continued. Self-centered gravitational attraction kept reducing the diameter of the whirling ball of cooling material...but only to a certain extent. This is the big logical distinction between the old inadequate theory of planetary formation and Gardner's discovery. The old notion would have us believe that the gravitational contraction continued unabated until the Earth had become molten hot under a fierce gravitational pressure. While such a scenario undoubtedly does routinely occur in the celestial evolution of particularly immense bodies, as is the case with all stars, it is definetly not the final development of typical planets.
The crucial second factor to lay stress on is centrifugal force. Remember that while gravity is attempting to draw all of the material toward the center, there is an opposing force also at work centrifugal force. Just as a figure skater spins much more rapidly when she brings her outstretched arms tightly in against her body, so too did the ever contracting proto-planet begin rotating ever more rapidly as its size decreased. Like the glued water in a bucket that refuses to spill if one swings the bucket in a fast circle, so too was this same law of motion centrifugal force attempting to hurl all of the material outward from the forming planet's axis of rotation. So finally, in this silent titanic struggle between two natural forces, a balance was struck. When the swiftly whirling sphere had drawn itself down to an approximately 8000 mile diameter, the compromise between gravitational and centrifugal force was reached. But there is more.
There is a special characteristic of centrifugal force and we must not overlook this important trait. The strength of 'c' force becomes greatly lessened as it approachs right angles to the direction of spin. A simple day-to-day example of this behavior is water in a basin. If you remove the drain plug and allow the water to start emptying from the basin, what will you eventually observe? A vortex or whirlpool, an empty space surrounded by rapidly rotating material. Now imagine this same principal in action concerning the contracting body which was to become our Earth. At right angles to the rotational axis, in other words the 'poles', the c force was considerably weaker than elsewhere, especially the equator, therefore although at the Earth's equator the c force was able to halt the material's inward progress at about an 8000 mile diameter, it was considerably less successful in the Polar regions, there stopping the contraction at about 1400 miles. The inevitable outcome of this natural compromise is that our planet concluded its evolution and solidified as an 8000 mile hollow sphere with 1400 mile diameter Polar Openings.
Now it is at this stage in the logic that Gardner advances and Reed falters. Because of his study of astronomical records and photography as specifically relating to nebula and comets, Gardner became aware of the whole truth. In the precise center of these translucent spheres is a proportionally small incandescent ball. Between this luminous interior orb and the shell of the nebula is a large intervening space; said another way, the nebula is hollow except for the bright sphere in its center. Why? Well, where is the one other location at at which c force is quite weak, besides at the poles? The answer of course is at the precise center of rotation, and once again the logic is so straightforward that we may readily examine a common household example to support the arguement. What would be the result if you sprinkled a layer of powder upon the top of a record player and then turned the record on high speed? The powder would fly off of the record...except for a small portion at the precise center.
Based upon his studies of the planetary nebula through observatory photographs, Gardner was able to surmise that the very thick shell of the Earth is approximately 800 miles thick, the Polar Openings 1400 miles across, and the gravitationally suspended Central Sun (the incandescent orb locked by gravity in the exact planetary center) some 600 miles diameter. Because of the enormity and very gradual curve of the Polar Aperture, it is impossible to visually detect it; this is the same as the fact that we do not 'see' that the Earth itself is round. The curve is much too gradual to observe. Based on the nearly constant merger of warm interior air with very cold exterior Polar air, the Polar Openings are almost always covered by a thick cloud layer. This explains why when viewed from satellites the openings look just as they would if there actually were the mythical 'polar ice caps' which government policy claims are at the Earth's extremities. Gardner was led inexorably to his monumental science discovery by the vast quantity of inconsistent information which he continually encountered during his years of study dealing with, especially, high Arctic expeditions. Chief among the numerous mysteries are
We shall now proceed to hear from many witnesses who forfeited much comfort, convenience, and in several cases their lives, in order that we may fully understand the true greatness of our world, a world vastly more spectacular than officially acknowledged.
In the preface of THREE YEARS OF ARCTIC SERVICE, Lt. Adolphus Greely of the U.S. Army expresses the amazement of his Lady Franklin Bay expedition at the strange conditions they experienced in the far north:
Before focusing on our own world, let us look briefly at some of our interesting neighbors in Space. Renowned astronomer Percival Lowell comments on page 33 of MARS:
The temptation to think of this blue perimeter as water must be avoided because if this were indeed prodigous volumes of water, it would frequently be coursing through the many ancient riverbeds which crisscross the dry Martian surface. These riverbeds are permanently dry. Instead what we are really observing is the optical effect of vast cloud masses moving over the curving sides of the Martian polar aperture. The exterior of Mars experiences changing seasons; the interior does not. The degree to which atmospheric moisture and temperature vary at the pole, where the differing climates converge, will determine the amount to which the immense blue ring will manifest itself in terrestrial telescopes. Being unaware of the true configuration of Mars, Lowell naturally believed that this blue polar band had to be water melted from an ice cap. In this assumption, though incorrect, he showed his wisdom. Unlike our present government policy, he knew absolutely that the pole of Mars cannot be carbon dioxide.
Robert Powers remarks in MARS: OUR FUTURE ON THE RED PLANET:
Thomas McDonough says in SPACE: THE NEXT 25 YEARS
In THE GREATEST CHALLENGE: The Incredible Adventure and Splendid Destiny Man in Exploring Space Martin Caidin notes that
Original Moon explorer Michael Collins writes in MISSION TO MARS
John Noble Wilford says in MARS BECKONS:
On page 22 of the March-April 1992 Final Frontier are some remarks about the planet nearest to the Sun, Mercury:
On page 63, in reference to comets as being planets in the process of destruction, Gardner writes
On page 80, Gardner displays eight excellent photographs of Mars recorded at the Yerkes observatory and which show the "...so-called snow-cap, projected beyond the planet's surface, which precludes all possibility of its being snow or ice." In writing of the English astronomer J. Norman Lockyer's report to the Royal Astronomical Society of England: "'The snow-zone was at times so bright that, like the crescent of the young moon, it appeared to project beyond the planet's limb. This effect of irradiation was frequently visible; on one occasion the snow-spot was observed to shine like a nebulous star when the planet itself was obscured by clouds...'.that luminosity is precisely what our own aurora borealis would look like if our planet was viewed from a great distance. And the light is the same in both cases." As lame as the official government position is in postulating ice, snow, or frozen carbon dioxide as composing the Martian poles, imagine their predicament in the case of Venus. By their own admission, the temperature on Venus is well in excess of 800 degrees Fahrenheit...quite a place to put an ice cap! Whether by choice or by chance, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration released a few remarkable radar-generated photographs of Venus in early 1989. One of these close up images, in which the cloud-piercing radar reveals with excellent clarity the north polar opening, boldly graced the cover of the April 1989 issue of Discover. Now back to Earth.
Certainly one of the three greatest pioneers of Polar exploration was Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, the acclaimed Norwegian scientist and Arctic voyager. Perhaps the most interesting expedition ever conducted in the Arctic area is chronicled in Nansen's 679 page two volume work whose complete title is: FARTHEST NORTH: 'Being the Record of a Voyage of Exploration - the Ship "Fram" 1893-96 and of a Fifteen Months Sleigh-Journey by Dr. Nansen and Lieut. Johansen'. On page 120, when the 13 man crew had already reached almost 77*N. latitude, Nansen observes
Another of the major contributors to Arctic knowledge was U.S. Army Lieutenant (later General) Adolphus Greely. Like other Arctic voyages, the Lady Franklin Bay expedition encountered the truly bitter cold conditions in the lower portion of the Arctic region, but less harsh climate as they neared 80* latitude and especially mild weather beyond the 80th parallel. On page 369, when their party had attained the 81st latitude while map- making for the Army on Ellesmere Island, Greely comments "At that time a high warm wind was blowing from the interior, and the temperature was considerably above 40*(5*C.)." His use of the word 'interior' was more profoundly accurate than he realized. An example of how dramatically the warm winds from the Interior affect the far north exterior is demonstrated in this passage from page 192, when the winds had for a long while been from the south: "At 10 P.M., February 16th, the mercurial thermometers thawed out, after having been frozen continuously for sixteen days and five hours. This is the longest time on record during which mercury has remained frozen." Dr. I.I. Hayes, with the schooner United States, wrote of his far north voyage in THE OPEN POLAR SEA. They were utterly bewildered by the inexplicable increase in temperature whenever the high Arctic wind sustained from the north. While stalled by a strong persistent wind out of the north for much of the first two weeks of November, Hayes noted that after the great initial masses of ice had been driven past them, there were none more to replace them. He adds, "November 13: Worse and worse. The temperature has risen again, and the roof over the upper deck gives US once more a worse than tropic shower...November 14: The wind has been blowing for nearly twenty four hours from the northeast, and yet the temperature holds on as before...I have done with speculation. A warm wind from the 'mer de glace'...makes mischief with my theories, as facts have heretofore done with the theories of wiser men." Ships' surgeon for the 'Advance' and 'Rescue',
Dr. Elisha Kent Kane recorded his extensive Arctic experience in ARCTIC EXPLORATIONS IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN, experiences which culminated near the 82nd parallel. The expedition progressed as far north as was practical in their ships and then when the amount of ice rendered additional progress impossible or at least unsafe, they continued their poleward journey on foot with sledges. But as with other Arctic explorers before and since, they were amazed to eventually find further advancement thwarted by the gradual encroachment of an open polar sea. He writes
About 130 years later we have these remarks from Russian explorer Vladimir Snegirev in his 1985 ON SKIES TO THE NORTH POLE:
Writing about Admiral Richard Byrd's first journey to Antarctica in BEYOND THE BARRIER, Eugene Rodgers records the extraordinary affect that a wind persisting from the Pole has:
On page 144 of his book Nansen exclaims "Today we had the same open channel to the north, and beyond it open sea as far as our view extended. What can this mean?" When in the 79th parallel, he records on page 197 "...bringing northerly wind. It is curious that there is almost always a rise of the thermometer with these stronger winds...A south wind of less velocity generally lowers the temperature, and a moderate north wind raises it." After having reached the very far northerly position of 86* latitude, Nansen observes on page 391 "I was inconvenienced for the first time by the heat; the sun scorched quite unpleasantly." Page 407: "...last night I could hardly sleep for heat." Several months later Nansen and Johansen were heading back to the Fram, but were still above the 81st parallel, when he writes on page 527 "Fancy, only 12*(21.5*Fahr.) of frost in the middle of December! We might almost imagine ourselves at home..." When his group was at the 81st parallel, Greely records on page 370 "In its whole extent the valley was barren of snow, and in most places was covered with a comparatively luxurient vegetation." At latitude 81*49' Greely writes on page 372 "I there caught a butterfly, and saw three skuas two bumble bees, and many flies..." Page 374: "While at this camp, No. 3, we obtained but little sleep, owing to the large swarms of flies...On rising at 2 A.M. the temperature was found to be very high, 48*(8.9*C.), with a minimum of 47*(7.8*C.) since the preceding evening ...In this lake also there were many small minnows..." Page 376: "Corporal Salor brought in with his willows two small pieces of unworked pine wood...Near by I discovered the former site of an old summer encampment of the Eskimos." Page 377: " The surroundings of the encampment were marked by luxurient vegetation of grass, sorrel, poppies, and other plants." Page 378: " The sky was partly covered with true cumulus clouds, quite rare in Arctic heavens...the temperature was high and the gay yellow poppies and other flowers drew to them gaudy butterflies ...he could well imagine himself in the roaring forties instead of eight degrees from the geographical pole." Page 379: "At this point, and in its immediate vicinity, a large number of butterflies were seen...facing Ruggles River, three abandoned Eskimo huts..." Page 383: "Among other pieces of wood was a pole, nine feet long and about two inches in diameter, of a hard, close grained, coniferous wood, probably fir or hard pine.'' Page 385: "...a bumble bee and a 'devil's darning needle'. Butterflies were very numerous, as many as fifty being seen during the day...The weather during the day was excessively hot, and we suffered extremely. The attached thermometer of the aneroid barometer, which was carried always in the shade, stood at 74*(23.3*C.)...The day's march carried us farther along the shores of Lake Hazen than I had reached in May, and now a new, undiscovered country was gradually opening to our view."
By far the three most significant categories of evidence proving the validity of United States patent 1096102 are
Although the brevity of this article prevents
all but a cursory examination of the voluminous available evidence, there
are several other categories of proof as well. These include:
The compass has been trying to indicate the true configuration of the Polar regions ever since man first employed this instrument in his quest for those mythical poles. Instead of smoothly leading would be conquerors of the pole to the fabled 90* latitude point, as it must if the official description of the Earth's geology is correct, the needle starts to perform in an agitated and indecisive fashion in high latitudes. After reaching approximately the 80th parallel, an extraordinary thing begins to occur—the needle starts vertical movement! It is at that stage that the conflicting forces of magnetism and gravity are manifesting themselves. Concerning the compass, Russian explorer Snegirev writes:
Walter Sullivan comments in QUEST FOR A CONTINENT "...compasses which behaved erratically so near the Pole. ' Chauncey Loomis observes in his biography of Arctic explorer Charles Francis Hall, WEIRD AND TRAGIC SHORES "...be buried so far north of the magnetic pole that the needle of a compass put on his grave points southwest." On page 536 of his book Nansen says "There were other things, too, that greatly puzzled me. If we were on a new land, near Spitzbergen, why were the rosy gulls never seen there, while we had them in flocks here to the north? And then there was the great variation of the compass." Greely records on page 128 of his book ''In the magnetometer a small magnet, freely suspended by single fibre of untwisted silk, swings readily in any horizontal direction. This magnet, at Conger...swung to and fro in a restless, uneasy way...A magnetic needle, nicely and delicately balanced, in the middle latitudes assumes a nearly level position. At Conger, however, the needle, adjusted so that it can move freely in a vertical plane, shows a strong tendency to assume an upright position. At a dip of 90* the needle would be erect, while at Conger the inclination was about 85*." The single most spectacular feature of the high Arctic is undoubtedly the Aurora Borealis, a phenomenon alien to nearly all of the Earth's countries.
The official government explanation is essentially the same as that expressed in nearly all large circulation publications, such as the GUINNESS BOOK OF WORLD RECORDS: ''These luminous displays are caused by showers of electrons streaming from the Sun (the solar wind) and striking the atoms of the upper atmosphere, so making them glow. The shape of the Earth's magnetic field confines these displays to polar regions and high latitudes.' Were it not for its wholesale omission of the facts, this conjecture sounds nearly plausible. There are large problems, however, with an electromagnetic hypothesis in accounting for the polar lights:
Peter Freuchen writes in THE ARCTIC YEAR:
The kaleidoscopic behaviour of the Aurora is fully explained by the limitless variety of atmospheric conditions present at any particular time between the Central Sun and the Polar Opening. For an instantaneous discreditation of the fraudulent 'electromagnetic bombardment' theory of Auroral production, we refer to this passage about Venus from Mark Chartrand's 1990 PLANETS: A GUIDE TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM:
Acclaimed South Polar explorer Finn Ronne notes in his autobiography, ANTARCTICA, MY DESTINY
The evidence presented in the science books of William Reed and especially Marshall Gardner prove beyond any reasonable doubt the accuracy of United States patent 1096102, the Hollow Earth Theory. When one couples the monumental importance of this discovery with the nearly total non-acknowledgement of it in the major press, it is readily apparent that it has the dubious distinction of also being the single most pervasive conspiracy in the world. Why?
The famous unregistered aircraft commonly described as unidentified flying objects are the logical answer. Even ignoring all other aspects of the UFO situation, the authentication of at least some of these vehicles is fully established by the countless number of firm radar contacts measured on both military and commercial scopes. Common sense easily discerns the logical connection between the dramatic arrival of these aircraft in large numbers in 1947 and our own extraordinary technological leap of the 1940s i.e. Atomic Bomb, trans-sound barrier flight, radar, television, etc. If the civilization operating these unregistered aircraft was headquartered on a distant planet, they would not be interested in the slightest; if, on the other hand, they occupy our interior sister world, in that case they would be extremely interested...especially by our harnessing of the atom. It may very possibly be that atomic energy will lead (or has led) to the ultimate technology of antimatter, gravity inertia reversal. Second only to national security, is a nation's desire to explore. As a peaceful pursuit, Mankind's most exhillerating ambition is Space exploration, an undertaking which we have barely begun. That will change soon if recent indications out of Nevada reach fruition. The long sought technology of gravity inertia reversal has finally been achieved and is being routinely flown in the Groom Dry Lake Antimatter Research Facility of Lincoln County, Nevada, USA. The large number of witnesses grew dramatically when NBC TV aired their April 20, 1992 report by Pentagon correspondent Fred Francis at the edge of perhaps the most highly classified military base in the world Area 51. After an eventual full disclosure and subsequent public exploration of the Interior Earth, Interior Mars will be even more fascinating.
'Sentido komun, katotohanan at sake katarungan'; common sense, truth and justice.
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